Literature Database Entry


Christoph Sommer, Stefan Joerer and Falko Dressler, "On the Applicability of Two-Ray Path Loss Models for Vehicular Network Simulation," Proceedings of 4th IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC 2012), Seoul, South Korea, November 2012, pp. 64–69.


We discuss the applicability of simplified Two-Ray Ground path loss models to simulation-based performance evaluation studies of Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) protocols. We contrast this with the applicability of a more exact Two-Ray Interference model. A key result is that, in most cases, the commonly used simplified Two-Ray Ground models add no additional value compared to the most simple Free-space model – in particular in highway and suburban environments. We further argue that replacing a simplified with a fully featured Two-Ray Interference model can not only substantially improve the accuracy of simulation results but also allow capturing one notable artifact that becomes immediately visible in field tests, namely strong signal attenuation at short and medium ranges. We implemented the Two-ray Interference model within the Veins simulation framework and validated it using analytical predictions and field measurements. We show the impact of the more accurate Two-Ray Interference model, which only comes with negligible additional computational cost for simulation experiments.

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Christoph Sommer
Stefan Joerer
Falko Dressler

BibTeX reference

    author = {Sommer, Christoph and Joerer, Stefan and Dressler, Falko},
    doi = {10.1109/VNC.2012.6407446},
    title = {{On the Applicability of Two-Ray Path Loss Models for Vehicular Network Simulation}},
    pages = {64--69},
    publisher = {IEEE},
    issn = {2157-9865},
    isbn = {978-1-4673-4996-3},
    address = {Seoul, South Korea},
    booktitle = {4th IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC 2012)},
    month = {11},
    year = {2012},

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