TU Berlin

Main document

Literature Database Entry


Tadashi Nakano, Tatsuya Suda, Y. Okaie, M. J. Moore and A. V. Vasilakos, "Molecular Communication Among Biological Nanomachines: A Layered Architecture and Research Issues," IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience, vol. 13 (3), pp. 169–197, September 2014.


Molecular communication is an emerging communication paradigm for biological nanomachines. It allows biological nanomachines to communicate through exchanging molecules in an aqueous environment and to perform collaborative tasks through integrating functionalities of individual biological nanomachines. This paper develops the layered architecture of molecular communication and describes research issues that molecular communication faces at each layer of the architecture. Specifically, this paper applies a layered architecture approach, traditionally used in communication networks, to molecular communication, decomposes complex molecular communication functionality into a set of manageable layers, identifies basic functionalities of each layer, and develops a descriptive model consisting of key components of the layer for each layer. This paper also discusses open research issues that need to be addressed at each layer. In addition, this paper provides an example design of targeted drug delivery, a nanomedical application, to illustrate how the layered architecture helps design an application of molecular communication. The primary contribution of this paper is to provide an in-depth architectural view of molecular communication. Establishing a layered architecture of molecular communication helps organize various research issues and design concerns into layers that are relatively independent of each other, and thus accelerates research in each layer and facilitates the design and development of applications of molecular communication.

Quick access

Original Version DOI (at publishers web site)
BibTeX BibTeX


Tadashi Nakano
Tatsuya Suda
Y. Okaie
M. J. Moore
A. V. Vasilakos

BibTeX reference

    author = {Nakano, Tadashi and Suda, Tatsuya and Okaie, Y. and Moore, M. J. and Vasilakos, A. V.},
    doi = {10.1109/TNB.2014.2316674},
    title = {{Molecular Communication Among Biological Nanomachines: A Layered Architecture and Research Issues}},
    pages = {169--197},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience},
    issn = {1536-1241},
    publisher = {IEEE},
    month = {9},
    number = {3},
    volume = {13},
    year = {2014},

Copyright notice

Links to final or draft versions of papers are presented here to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted or distributed for commercial purposes without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.

The following applies to all papers listed above that have IEEE copyrights: Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.

The following applies to all papers listed above that are in submission to IEEE conference/workshop proceedings or journals: This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible.

The following applies to all papers listed above that have ACM copyrights: ACM COPYRIGHT NOTICE. Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than ACM must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Request permissions from Publications Dept., ACM, Inc., fax +1 (212) 869-0481, or permissions@acm.org.

The following applies to all SpringerLink papers listed above that have Springer Science+Business Media copyrights: The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com.

This page was automatically generated using BibDB and bib2web.


Featured Paper