Literature Database Entry


Yihao Guo, Zhiguo Wan, Hui Cui, Xiuzhen Cheng and Falko Dressler, "Vehicloak: A Blockchain-Enabled Privacy-Preserving Payment Scheme for Location-Based Vehicular Services," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 22 (11), pp. 6830–6842, November 2023.


The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) technology enables vehicles to communicate with each other, with pedestrians and with roadside infrastructures, to realize more efficient, safer and more environmentally friendly transportation. IoV also promises rich location-based services for vehicles, such as parking and toll highway. However, preserving privacy for location-based service payments emerges as a critical and challenging problem in IoV. Existing schemes rely on centralized banks for payment processing, resulting in location privacy leakage to centralized entities. In this paper, we propose a decentralized privacy-preserving payment scheme named Vehicloak for IoV based on the blockchain technology. The biggest challenge is to provide location privacy for vehicles while guaranteeing correct service payments using the transparent blockchain. To tackle this challenge, we introduce a new cryptographic technique called zk-GSigproof that integrates zero-knowledge proof with group signature. Vehicloak implements this technique in a smart contract to process payment, which verifies zero-knowledge proof and group signature without leaking location information. It is not limited to IoV and can be applied in many payment scenarios. To evaluate the performance of our scheme, we implement Vehicloak on a private blockchain of 100 nodes on Aliyun, and conduct a test with up to 4,000 transactions. The experimental results prove the feasibility of Vehicloak.

Quick access

Original Version DOI (at publishers web site)
Authors' Version PDF (PDF on this web site)
BibTeX BibTeX


Yihao Guo
Zhiguo Wan
Hui Cui
Xiuzhen Cheng
Falko Dressler

BibTeX reference

    author = {Guo, Yihao and Wan, Zhiguo and Cui, Hui and Cheng, Xiuzhen and Dressler, Falko},
    doi = {10.1109/tmc.2022.3193165},
    title = {{Vehicloak: A Blockchain-Enabled Privacy-Preserving Payment Scheme for Location-Based Vehicular Services}},
    pages = {6830--6842},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing},
    issn = {1536-1233},
    publisher = {IEEE},
    month = {11},
    number = {11},
    volume = {22},
    year = {2023},

Copyright notice

Links to final or draft versions of papers are presented here to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted or distributed for commercial purposes without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.

The following applies to all papers listed above that have IEEE copyrights: Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.

The following applies to all papers listed above that are in submission to IEEE conference/workshop proceedings or journals: This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible.

The following applies to all papers listed above that have ACM copyrights: ACM COPYRIGHT NOTICE. Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than ACM must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Request permissions from Publications Dept., ACM, Inc., fax +1 (212) 869-0481, or

The following applies to all SpringerLink papers listed above that have Springer Science+Business Media copyrights: The original publication is available at

This page was automatically generated using BibDB and bib2web.

Last modified: 2024-07-19