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Waldemar Faist, "Coordinated Coexistence of LoRa and Wi-Fi in Unlicensed 2.4 GHz ISM Radio Band," Bachelor Thesis, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), TU Berlin (TUB), June 2022. (Advisor: Anatolij Zubow; Referees: Falko Dressler and Thomas Sikora)


LoRa has arrived on the 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) radio band. However this ISM band is vastly crowded by coexistent technologies, e.g. Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, IEEE 802.15.4 based networks (ZigBee, Thread), RF peripherals and other simple radio devices. LoRa’s coexistence mechanism is based on simple ALOHA protocol resulting in inefficiency, especially for long-distance and low-power LoRa communication. Wi-Fi’s energy detection using Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) is not sensitive enough to detect long-range LoRa communication. In this thesis I proposed two different approaches based on on explicit and coordinated collaboration to improve the coexistence of Wi-Fi and LoRa networks. I evaluated those approaches by the means of experiments. The first approach is based on CTS-to-Self mechanism to crate time windows in Wi-Fi transmissions to lower the average Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise Ratio (SINR) of LoRa communication. The second approach is based on a spectrum shaping method on Wi-Fi side in order to create coexistence tunnels for LoRa by selectively suppressing sequential subcarriers in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) signals that overlap with LoRa signals using two different methods: Nulling and emulated nulling by utilizing low-power QAM-64 modulated symbols. Results from the CTS-to-Self approach and spectrum shaping using emulated nulling revealed issues with the Automatic Gain Control (AGC), while real nulling achieved an improvement of the LoRa link. A Monte Carlo simulation showed that spectrum shaping with nulling is suitable for urban environments and can achieve a high throughput gain for LoRa, while the impact on the Wi-Fi network is very small.

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Waldemar Faist

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    author = {Faist, Waldemar},
    title = {{Coordinated Coexistence of LoRa and Wi-Fi in Unlicensed 2.4 GHz ISM Radio Band}},
    advisor = {Zubow, Anatolij},
    institution = {School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS)},
    location = {Berlin, Germany},
    month = {6},
    referee = {Dressler, Falko and Sikora, Thomas},
    school = {TU Berlin (TUB)},
    type = {Bachelor Thesis},
    year = {2022},

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